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Human Cloning Research Paper - What Is Human Cloning?

Autor:   •  April 5, 2011  •  Research Paper  •  2,264 Words (10 Pages)  •  1,800 Views

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CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION

What is human cloning? Well, it is the creation of a genetically same copy of a human cell or human tissue. There are two types of cloning, namely reproductive human cloning and therapeutic human cloning. Therapeutic cloning is not to produce a cloned human or animal, but rather to create cloned embryos for research purposes. Then, how reproductive human cloning is done? With the exception of the sperm and egg, every cell in the body contains all of the genetic material in its DNA to create an exact clone of the original body. But cells have been "biochemically programmed to perform limited functions." The other functions are turned off. Most scientists believed that such differentiated cells could not be reprogrammed to be capable of behaving as a fertilized egg. (Reproductive Cloning, 2004)

Reproductive human cloning also captured media attention in the twentieth century. Human cloning was viewed as a hope to curing diseases but also feared that human cloning might destroy the future and safety of mankind. Reproductive human cloning has also been a common subject for news reporting in countries all over the world such as the United States and South Korea. Besides that, there was no surprise when reproductive human cloning featured in Hollywood films, documentaries and it was written in many novels.

(Haran et al. 2008)

The history of reproductive cloning started not long ago after the announcement of Dolly's birth. Dolly was a sheep and the first mammal to be cloned. The nucleus for the embryo from which Dolly developed was a full adult cell. They are born through asexual reproduction. These were the result of the replacement of the nucleus of an egg with that of a foetal cell rather than through fertilization of an egg or through combining egg and sperm in laboratory. Dolly's birth proved that reproductive human cloning is possible.

(Haran et al. 2008)

On the possibility of human reproductive cloning, there was a history of many animal clones cause their offspring to be overgrowth. The fetus grows abnormally huge and dies just before or after birth. They have under-developed lungs and low immunity to sicknesses and diseases. However, researches in Duke University announced on August 15, 2001 that humans will not face this problem. It is because the DNA of all primates such as humans and monkeys has two copies of a particular gene that regulates fetal growth, while almost all other animals only have one. The extra copy can prevent overgrowth in cloned human fetuses. Randy Jirtle, professor of radiation oncology at Duke University in Durham said: "It's going to be probably easier to clone us than it would be to clone these other animals because you don't have this problem -- not easy, but easier.''

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