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Psych 2000 Final Test Notes

Autor:   •  January 25, 2019  •  Study Guide  •  5,774 Words (24 Pages)  •  17 Views

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Introduction to Motivation

What is motivation?

The need or desire that energizes or directs behaviors.

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic

Four perspectives

Instinct Theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective)

Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned.

Humans show fewer instincts than animals

Girl builds different houses. Bird builds one type of nest.

Drive-Reduction Theory

A physiological need creates an aroused tension state ( a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

Need-----Drive----Drive-reducing theory.

Maintaining homeostasis or balanced state.

(Optimum) Arousal Theory

Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys an children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive.

We like a little adventure/arousal.

Not just basic drive.

Hierarchy of motives

People are engaged to satisfy lower level needs before higher level needs.

Hunger and thirst at the bottom, then safety etc.

Hunger

The Physiology of Hunger

Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger.

Swallowed balloon to measure contractions.

The brain and stomach contractions have a strong correlation but are not directly related.

Our brain responds to cues other than just the physical sensation of hunger.

Hunger is not just a physical response to stomach contractions.

Set Point

Manipulating the lateral and the ventromedial hypothalamus alters the body’s weight thermostat. Heredity influences set point and body type.

Tricky to outsmart the hypothalamus.

If weight is lost, food intake increases and energy expenditure decreases. If weight is gained, the opposite takes place.

Set point and metabolism

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