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Madagascar Company Data & Vanilla Product Data

Autor:   •  December 8, 2018  •  Case Study  •  1,389 Words (6 Pages)  •  46 Views

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Environment

  • 5 Geographical Regions: the east coast, the Tsaratanana Massif in the north, the central highlands, the west coast, and the southwest
  • Has a unique ecosystem and the highest level of biodiversity in the world
  • 200,000 species of which 150,000 are endemic to Madagascar
  • 12,000 plant species  and  the Spiny Forest in the southwestern part of the island is covered in plants with sharp spines that are endemic to Madagascar
  • Major environmental problems
  • Deforestation and habitat destruction
  • Agricultural fires
  • Erosion and soil degradation
  • Overexploitation of living resources
  • Tropical Cyclones

Climate

  • November to April : Hot rainy season with trade winds, monsoons, & destructive cyclones
  • May to October: Cool dry season
  • Heavy precipitation originating from the Indian Ocean provides moisture for the area’s rainforest ecosystem.
  • The central highlands and western areas are both drier and cooler
  • Semi-arid climate prevails in the southwest and southern interior of the island

Resources

  • Natural Resource Capital
  • Renewable – Wood, Fisheries, Mangroves, & Coral Reefs
  • Non-Renewable – Nickel, Copper, Platinum, Coal, Bauxite, Iron, Sapphires, Chromite & Gold
  • Export Commodities
  • Agricultural – Vanilla, Coffee, Shellfish, Sugar Cotton clothes, & Textiles
  • Mineral – Gemstones, chromite, & graphite

Government

  • Madagascar was a kingdom state
  • The country gained independence from France in 1960
  • Madagascar is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. The Prime Minister of Madagascar is head of government, and of a multi-party system.
  • The 184-seat parliament is made up of the Senate and National Assembly
  • Political Situation has been marked by struggle for control: Assassinations, military coups and disputed elections feature prominently in every election.
  • Political Issue: Serious issues with corruption even though BIANCO, the anti-corruption agency, was formed under the current ruling party.
  • Antananarivo is the capital of the island

Economy

  • The economy of Madagascar is a market economy and is supported by agricultural industry and emerging tourism, textile and mining industries. 
  • GDP by sector:
  • Agriculture (farming, fishing, and forestry): 26.5%
  • Industry (mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction): 16.6%
  • Services (government activities, communications, tourism and travel, transportation, finance): 56.9%
  • Economy Issues:
  • The government is responsible for policies that ensure all resources contribute to the long-term economic development of the island and not only to short-term revenue generation.
  • There is a lack of infrastructure to service mineral deposits for economic development resulting in negative trade balances. (Import more than they export because of a lack of infrastructure to export minerals)

Currency

  • Malagasy ariary (MGA) is the currency of Madagascar

Demographics

  • Population in 2017: 24,894,551
  • Life Expectancy as of 2017: Male is 64.7 and Females is 67.8 years
  • Ethnic Groups: Malayo-Indonesian, coastal ethnics (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry), French, Indian, Creole, Comorian, & Chinese
  • Religion: 41% practice Christianity and 52% practice traditional religions, about 7% practice Islam and Hinduism
  • Literacy rate as of 2015: 66.7% of males are literate and 62.6% of females

Language

  • Malagasy and French are the official languages of Madagascar

Culture

  • Madagascar has core cultural features that have created a strongly unified cultural identity.
  • The traditional Malagasy worldview is shaped by values that emphasize solidarity, destiny, karma, and a sacred life force that legitimates authority figures within the community or family.
  • Cultural practices include: practice of male circumcision; strong kinship ties and veneration of ancestors; a widespread belief in the power of magic, astrology, and witch doctors. There is traditional division of social classes into nobles, commoners, and slaves

Arts

  • An artistic tradition of Madagascar is Oration expressed as poetry, public discourse, and proverbs.  
  • Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo, who is considered Africa's first modern poet and Elie Rajaonarison, have written the new wave of Malagasy poetry
  • Madagascar has also developed a rich musical heritage, including classical music, performed at village gatherings, local dance floors, orchestras, and national airwaves
  • Nationals also practice silk and raffia weaving and lamba production.
  • Sculptors produce furniture and household goods mainly for the tourist market.
  • The decorative and functional woodworking traditions from the central highlands was inscribed on UNESCO's list of Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Food

  • Malagasy cuisine has influences of Southeast Asian, African, Indian, Chinese and European culinary traditions.
  • The cuisine of Madagascar typically consists of of rice (vary) served with an accompaniment of meat or vegetable proteins that are flavored with a sauce of ginger, onion, garlic, tomato, vanilla, coconut milk, salt, curry powder, and green peppercorns.
  • A wide variety of sweet and savory fritters and street foods are available across the island
  • Locally produced beverages include fruit juices, coffee, herbal teas and teas, and alcoholic drinks such as rum, wine, and beer.
  • Three Horses Beer is the most popular beer on the island and is a symbol of Madagascar
  • The island also produces some of the world's finest chocolate
  • Chocolaterie Robert is the most famous chocolate company on the island

Vanilla

Pollination

  • Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla
  • Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived. Vanilla is highly valued for its flavor.
  • Natural pollination only happens with mountain bees, brown or black bees, or hummingbirds.
  • Growers have tired to being these bee species and hummingbirds into other growing locales, but it hasn’t worked. The only other ways are artificial pollination and hand pollination.
  • Artificial pollination was discovered, but not financially deployable. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, so growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task.
  • Hand pollination was discovered by a 12-year-old slave, Edmond Albius, which paved way for global cultivation of the plant.
  • Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron because growing the vanilla seed pods is labor-intensive.

Species

  • Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally including Mexico, Madagascar, Réunion, and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean; and in the the South Pacific specifically West Indies, Central America, and South America
  • Famous types of Vanilla include: Bourban Vanilla, Madagascar Vanilla, Mexican Vanilla, Tahitian Vanilla, French Vanilla, and West Indian Vanilla

Production

  • Madagascar and Indonesia produce two-thirds of the world's supply of vanilla.
  • World production of vanilla was 7,940 tonnes in 2016 by Madagascar (37%) and Indonesia with (29%)
  • Unfavorable weather conditions in 2017 and 2018 like droughts, cyclones, and poor farming practices in Madagascar raised concerns about the global supply and costs of vanilla in 2017 and 2018

Growing Conditions

  • Quality vanilla is a result of good vines and careful production methods.
  • Commercial vanilla production can be performed under open field and "greenhouse" operations.
  • Vanilla grows best in a hot, humid climate from sea level to an elevation of 1,500 m. The ideal climate has moderate rainfall, 1,500–3,000 mm, evenly distributed through 10 months of the year.
  • Optimum temperatures for cultivation are 15–30 °C during the day and 15–20 °C during the night.
  • Ideal humidity is around 80%, so the most successful vanilla growing and processing is done in the region within 10 to 20° of the equator.
  • Soils for vanilla cultivation should be loose, with high organic matter content and loamy texture. They must be well drained, and a slight slope helps in this condition. Soil pH around is around 5.3 and mulch is very important for proper growth of the vine
  • Plantation workers need to practice caution to avoid contact with the sap from the plant's stems.
  • The sap of most species of Vanilla orchid contain calcium oxalate which can cause moderate to severe dermatitis if it comes in contact with bare skin.

Uses

  • Vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, and aromatherapy
  • Vanilla is considered the world's most popular flavor being extensively used in foods, beverages and cosmetics.
  • It is extremely popular as an ice cream flavor  
  • Vanilla is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances such as chocolate, custard, caramel, and coffee, and others.

Resources:

http://data.wordbank.org

http://fortuneofafrica.com

http://www.oecd.org/

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