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Break Even Analysis

Autor:   •  February 13, 2014  •  Case Study  •  1,227 Words (5 Pages)  •  683 Views

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The study of cost-volume-profit relationship is often referred as Break Even Analysis. The term BEA is interpreted in two senses. In its narrow sense, it is concerned with finding out Break Even Point; BEP is the point at which total revenue is equal to total cost. It is the point of no profit, no loss. In its broad determine the probable profit at any level of production.

Key Terms used in the BE analysis:

1. Fixed cost

2. Variable cost

3. Contribution

4. Margin of safety

5. Angle of incidence

6. Profit volume ratio

7. Break-Even-Point

1. Fixed cost: Expenses that do not vary with the volume of production are known as fixed expenses. Eg. Manager's salary, rent and taxes, insurance etc. It should be noted that fixed changes are fixed only within a certain range of plant capacity. The concept of fixed overhead is most useful in formulating a price fixing policy. Fixed cost per unit is not fixed.

2. Variable Cost: Expenses that vary almost in direct proportion to the volume of production of sales are called variable expenses. Eg. Electric power and fuel, packing materials consumable stores. It should be noted that variable cost per unit is fixed.

3. Contribution: Contribution is the difference between sales and variable costs and it contributed towards fixed costs and profit. It helps in sales and pricing policies and measuring the profitability of different proposals. Contribution is a sure test to decide whether a product is worthwhile to be continued among different products.

Contribution = Sales – Variable cost

Contribution = Fixed Cost + Profit.

4. Margin of safety: Margin of safety is the excess of sales over the break even sales. It can be expressed in absolute sales amount or in percentage. It indicates the extent to which the sales can be reduced without resulting in loss. A large margin of safety indicates the soundness of the business. The formula for the margin of safety is:

Actual sales – Break even sales or

5. Angle of incidence: This is the angle between sales line and total cost line at the Break-even point. It indicates the profit earning capacity of the concern. Large angle of incidence indicates a high rate of profit; a small angle indicates a low rate of earnings. To improve this angle, contribution should be increased either by raising the selling price and/or by reducing variable cost. It also indicates as to what extent the output and sales price can be changed to attain a desired amount of profit.

6. Profit Volume Ratio is usually


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