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Anth 123 Exam #1 Study Notes

Autor:   •  January 21, 2019  •  Case Study  •  2,215 Words (9 Pages)  •  30 Views

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 ANTH 123 Exam #1 Study Notes

The Evolution of Chairs

  • Early on, the Pharaonic Egyptians had used chairs and the ancient Greeks had refined chairs with elegance and comfort
  • The Romans introduced chairs to Europe, but they were forgotten after the collapse of their empire (the Dark Ages)
  • Medieval homes had benches and stools, and beds also served as seats
  • In the 15th century, chairs start to get used again, but they are hard, flat, tall, and straight
  • Chairs in the Middle Ages were not intended to be comfortable, their prime function was ceremonial
  • Only important people sat on chairs, unimportant people sat on benches
  • In churches, furniture was intentionally severe (ex. straight-backed pews and hard benches)
  • During the reign of Louis XV, sitting becomes a form of relaxation, and chairs are adapted to the body for the first time since the Greeks
  • Furniture is made especially for women
  • In the 18th century, seating becomes more elaborate
  • The back stool (from the late 16th century) becomes the side chair, which is padded and upholstered
  • The straight-backed chair (from the 15th century) becomes more ergonomic
  • During the Georgian Era couches become popular

The Evolution of Houses

The Medieval Long House (early houses):

  • Rectangular shape
  • Hearth is in the center of the room
  • There is a large table, but it is not located near the door or on the long side of the house
  • The kitchen is in the corner away from the door
  • A bench or chair in the house represents wealth

The 14th Century Bourgeois Townhouse:

  • Combined living and work
  • Long, narrow buildings with two floors
  • The first floor was a shop or work area with a single, large chamber (the hall) used for living quarters
  • Had a basement used for storage
  • The houses looked empty – only a few pieces of furniture, a tapestry on the wall, and a stool beside the fireplace
  • There was no “dining table”, just a table for all purposes

Homes from the End of the Middle Ages to the Seventeenth Century:

  • Conditions of domestic life changed slowly, so these homes were not very different from Medieval homes
  • Houses were larger and sturdier due to improvements in infrastructure (i.e. stone replaced wood)
  • There were minor improvements, like the use of glass in windows to replace oiled paper
  • The fireplace and chimney became more widely accepted, but they were still poorly designed
  • Lighting is still crude, and does not improve until the early 1800s with the invention of the gaslight

The Typical 17th Century Parisian Bourgeois House:

  • Had four or five floors, rather than two
  • The lowest floors were used for commercial space, for the stables, and for all the living quarters
  • The main room (salle), similar to a hall, is used for dining and entertaining
  • Cooking is done in a separate, specific room away from the salle because the smells were considered undesirable
  • Specific rooms are used as bedrooms, which had rooms connected to them specifically used as a wardrobe and another for storage
  • All of these rooms were large and had windows and a fireplace

The 17th Century Parisian Bourgeois Townhouse:

  • More than one family per house
  • Divided into a first and second floor – the first is used as a work shop, and the second is used more for living purposes (i.e. sleeping and cooking)
  • Cooking was done in the bedroom
  • The fireplace is on the left side, and the table is on the right side of the first floor
  • There is a courtyard in the center
  • These houses were kept [relatively] clean and bad odors were discouraged
  • Started the separation of work and home, which encouraged privacy from the public, but not within the home

The 17th Century Parisian Noble Townhouse:

  • Expressed the growing desire for privacy – the houses were hidden behind homes of the commoners and had an unimpressive exterior
  • More ornate, with more courtyards and grand, public staircases for show
  • Still no bathrooms – a servant carried around a close stool
  • Many rooms but no corridors, and rooms did not have functions

The 17th Century Dutch Bourgeois Townhouse (Canal house):

  • Built using brick and wood instead of stone, and adjacent to each other
  • Had a “front room” where commercial activities took place and a “back room” where the household cooked, ate, and slept
  • Had a bedroom on the first floor with a narrow staircase leading to a living room upstairs
  • Were “small houses” that contained few people, and were rather private to the family
  • These homes were neat and well-kept

The 18th Century English Bourgeois Georgian Country House:

  • Combined domesticity, elegance, and comfort
  • Very isolated
  • The first room in the house is a hall for guests with a large staircase
  • Rooms on the lower floors are dedicated to common activities
  • The house has a large number and a variety of public rooms for specific uses, as well as private rooms for the family

The Victorian Home:

  • Did not have indoor plumbing or dedicated bathrooms because this was considered vulgar
  • Had ventilation because of the emphasis on fresh air at this time
  • Used gaslights which left behind soot, which lead to the creation of bright-colored rooms and “spring cleaning”
  • Had adapted fireplaces 

The American Samoan Home:

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