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The West & Japan Hbs Case

Autor:   •  February 7, 2019  •  Essay  •  9,782 Words (40 Pages)  •  5 Views

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Final Notes

The West & Japan

China        10/18

  • Indian cotton traded textiles/slaves trade in the sugar economy        
  • Money is made --> stored in England, that eventually funds the industrial revolution
  • THe English invented the spinning engine and the steam engine
  • The East India company brings the first work drugs : tea!!
  • China only wanted silver for tea, but the English did not have enough silver
  • They started to trade drugs instead (opium)
  • This was illegal, but very profitable
  • Addiction spread through the Chinese government (from top to bottom) and this became a popular work drug.
  • 1839 : A debate over what government’s stance on opium: legalize or eliminate trade?
  • Tried to eliminate the trade by confiscating and destroying
  • First Opium War
  • The East India company took this issue to England and Parliament intervenes
  • They send a navy, and commissions a gunboat to continue trade
  • Treaty of Nanking: after East India Company blocked the channel for food, China gave in and opened “Treaty Ports”
  • Carved out areas with “extraterritorial rights”: no chinese laws applied, only foreigner laws. COnsuls appointed by foreigners
  • Made lowas to attract all rich Chinese people within China to treaty ports
  • Start of Western ideas and religious transitions into China (also religion)
  • Taiping Heavenly Kingdom merges Chinese Culture with Christianity
  • Treaty of Beijing
  • Gave so much power to the west
  • “Spheres of Influence” to tear the country apart

Meanwhile... in Japan meets the West

  • Japan is still in the Bakuhan system (no foreigners allowed)
  • 1853 Commodore Perry arrives in Japan in huge black ships (coal ships) which begins the first US presence in the pacific
  • Coaling stations in random islands
  • Bakufu didn’t have power against these coal ships, so they sent a message to Tozama and asked what to do!
  • Recall the the Tozama was the lower class of daimyo-- the outsiders. But they knew the best about foreign culture since they lived so far from the capital.
  • The consensus was to not let them in, BUT the Bakufu let them in anyways
  • The Treaty of Amity and Friendship and Peace: Bakufu won’t kill the US shipwrecked sailors
  • The American Consul would be Townsend Harris
  • Immediately there was the Ansei earthquake that destroyed Edo.
  • This alluded to the Mandate of Heaven: Only those who maintain the mandate of heaven can rule
  • Raised questions about existing regime, esp when dealing with the US
  • Townsend negotiates unfair treaties- The Harris Treaty:         10/24
  1. Opened up treaty ports
  2. Consular Jurisdiction 
  3. Tariff autonomy (with low tariffs)
  4. Extraterritoriality, but not for opium (Japan wanted to avoid China’s mistakes)
  1. Extraterritoriality: diplomatic immunity
  1. Most favored nation status
  1. All later treaty nations got the same conditions
  1. Freedom of religion for foreigners
  • The bakufu wanted to control the foreigners. They created a phony island, bankrolled modern infrastructure while Japan controlled the bridges
  • Furnished with the telegraph, gas, etc
  • Yokohama Period:
  • The culture and art style of Japanese people being introduced to Foreigners
  • “Exotic” and new technologies
  • Foreigners are depicted as hairy barbarians -- yet not actively hostile
  • Ansei Treaties 1858:
  • Included US, France, Russia, Great Britain, Netherlands
  • Advantages for Japan
  • Old regime was overthrown
  • “Samurai revolution” -- Tozama overthrow the bakufu system and changed into a quasi style democracy
  • Rangoku Scholarship
  • Direct Knowledge about western science and technology
  • Japan’s first steam engine was invented
  • So basically Japan didn’t get screwed over like China was

Bakumatsu: Elitist Political Revolution

  • Led by radicalized, young samurai from Tozama Domains
  • Before the Tozama were frozen from the social ladder. But they still had the most contact with the Chinese merchants, and thus had more knowledge about the outside world
  • Ishin Shishi
  • Educated, worldly young people (mostly samari)
  • “Men of high purpose”
  • Led imperial forces against imperial shogun in Bakumatsu
  • Ito Hirobumi: leader (lol remember him)
  • During Bakumatsu
  • Bakufu don’t know much about the outside world and gone over the heads of Fudai and asked the Tozama instead (this hurt the Fudai feelings)
  • Emperor Komei sends a secret message to Tozama to rebel
  • Sonno Joi” : “Revere the Emperor. Expel the Barbarians”
  • Tokugawa Iesada: the shogun at the time
  • Was super weak, and dies. Who will take over?
  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu: outside the bloodline, kind of poorer but smart and strong (remember him lol)
  • But the people in the court wanted a weak person for control
  • Tokugawa Iemochi: just a child, and was put on the throne instead
  • Assassination of Li Naosuke (the regent)
  • Because of Kobu Gattai (the union of the imperial court and the shogunate), the emperor's sister, princess Kazu is forced to mary Iemochi
  • It was a weird time of power and for everyone:
  • Shinsengumi - “newly selected cops”
  • The Bakufu feel unsafe and hire their own cops. Many of these people were ex samurai
  • Western interventions begin, and some towns are attacked?
  • “Ee Ja Nai Ka”
  • Movement among the chonin
  • Ideology: YOLO we literally might die tomorrow and wtf is going on
  • After Iemochi dies, Yoshinobu takes over. But it's too late for him to truly regain power and everything is already to shit
  • Boshin War: The last 1 year war that results in the fall of the Bakufu.
  • Republic of Ezo 1868-1869
  • Americans came in and suggested an American sponsored republic
  • Charter Oath: April 7, 1868
  • This is the first step to the Meiji restoration
  • Charter oath has a few oaths and lists things -- lol wait but what tho

The Meiji Restoration        10/26

  • “Fukoku Kyohei”
  • “Enrich the country, strengthen the military”
  • Embraces foreigners/foreign ideas
  • Replaces “sonno Joi”
  • “Choshu Five”
  • Five Japanese (including OG Ito homeboy) sent to UCL
  • Went on the Iwakura MIssion: traveled through America and Europe
  • Ito was inspired by Prussian constitution and their bicameral legislation
  • During the Meiji Restoration government the Meiji Oligarchs were behind the scenes controlling the government
  • Ito’s prescription of why the west is so strong?
  1. Industrialization
  2. Constitutional government
  3. Military strength
  1. Huge gal was to project Joana's strength
  1. Imperialism
  1. Inspired to draw natural resources
  2. This became an extremely important goal of oligarchs
  • The Abolition of Feudalism (the Samaris and the Daimyos)
  • Daimyos brought out
  • 1869: oligarchs talks some Daimyos into handing out their land back to the emperor
  • Back the Ritsuryo System tbt
  • 1871: Daimyo Domains Abolished
  • Former 250 hans are replaced by 72 prefectures
  • Daimyos could serve as officials, but they eventually got paid off
  • Daimyo is Eased off Power
  • Rewarded with Titles and stipends
  • Kazoku - Hereditary nobility
  • Samaris are disestablished
  • 1873 is a pivotal year
  • Samurai lose monopoly to military power
  • Military recruitment by conscription
  • Samaria rice stipend are now taxed
  • They are given bonds as an option in 1873, but samurais had little financial experience with bonds, so these proved to be pretty useless
  • By 1876, bonds were mandatory
  • Samurai hairstyles were abolished
  • Right to carry a sword abolished
  • Samurai Revolts 1877
  • Satsuma rebellion
  • Battle of Shiroyama 1877
  • Samurai lost quickly by the army :(
  • Samurai eventually disappear
  • Some go into business
  • Government
  • Many went to military
  • Most went into police
  • Meiji Land Reform
  • Full Privatization of Land
  • Registered Deeds and Titles
  • Land can now be traded and Mortgaged
  • Direct Taxation: mimics the west
  • Money taxes, instead of rice
  • Kokutai
  • Kokutai: The concept of national essence of Japan        What makes Japan Japan?
  • Many important from Asia - they wanted to distinctly identify what was imported and what was distinctly “theirs”
  • New National Language based on the Tokyo Dialect (yamanote)
  • Yamanote Dialect - hilly north western and higher/richer dialect
  • Shitamachi: lower city and less elite
  • Ex: Buddhism is re established, since this is imported from China
  • Neo Confucianism was already heavily influencing Japan
  • They formally threw this out. But they needed something else!
  • Reinvent Shintoism:
  • Before, no centralized form. This was dominated by women, shamans, and very local
  • State Shinto is invented
  • Male dominated
  • Professional clergy
  • Emperor is made central figure
  • Strong focus on sun goddess
  • Japan tries to export this shinto during colonialism
  • Dies out immediately after WWII
  • Compulsory elementary education
  • State sponsored elementary school
  • Create an emerging generation to carry out the ideology
  • Imperial Rescript on Education 1986
  • Industrialization
  • Early on, industrialization was state led
  • But then this was taken over privatization
  • Textile factories
  • Women workers were preferred
  • Resulted in a generation of women who have a source on income
  • Constitutionalism
  • Ito Hirobumi was an architect of the constitution
  • 1884: an upper house is created
  • 1885: a cabinet system with Prime minister as Ito Hirobumi
  • 1888: a privy council
  • Private, chosen by the emperor
  • Different than an elected cabinet
  • Meiji constitution 1889
  • Bicameral legislation
  • Emperor is sacred, huge executive power
  • Lower house became way more powerful - they had control of the finances
  • Imperialism
  • 1873 : “Seikaron”
  • Serious talk about invading Korea, but it was held off
  • 1874: Mudan Incdient
  • Punitive Invasion of Taiwan
  • 1875: Ganghwa Island
  • 1876 Treaty of Ganghwa

What’s up with Korea tho?

  • Yangban class is dominating still
  • Made up of landowning, neo confucian educated officials
  • Ensurfed the peasant class
  • Factionalism of Yangbans
  • Successful yangbans with state power
  • Have tiled roofs
  • Intent of holding back the commercial class
  • Loser yangbans - Seowon : academics
  1. Silhak : “Practical learning”
  1. Yangbans start to teaching practical things away from confucianism
  1. Seonhak: “Western Learning”
  1. Indirect western learning through China by the Jesuits
  1. Donghak: “Eastern Learning”
  1. Study China even MORE
  • Women did not have many rights
  • Gisaeng: Korea’s version of courtesans
  • Entertainers but also trained in useful knowledge
  • Traditional medicine, literate, could play instruments, dance, fashion
  • Recall that at the end of the Joseon period, Joseon was super close to China        10/31
  • They had a tributary relationship
  • Military protectorate relationship
  • Trade preference
  • Later on, when Japan defeats China, it forces Korea to cut off tributary relationship with China
  • King Gojong (1863-1907)        
  • Actually a very weak king
  • Daewongun (his dad) is the regent, and he keeps foreigners out
  • Queen Min: picked by Daewongun
  • Meeks and docile at first
  • But once married, proves to be capable and ambitious
  • When the king becomes of age, she takes back the power to the king and away from the regency
  • Super anti-Japanese faction
  • Period of Hermit Kingdom
  • French invasion of Ganghwa
  • China being taken over by foreigners
  • Japan had a civil war going on
  • Korea wanted to prevent this crazy shit and closed their borders to the French
  • Beginning attempts of invasion into Korea
  • US invasion of Ganghwa 1871 - repelled katy powers for Japan
  • Japanese invasion of Ganghwa
  • Treaty of Ganghwa
  • Unequal treaty to Korea -- Japan essentially just copied the west
  • Established extraterritorial rights
  • Treaty ports
  • Japanese business took advantage of this treaty
  • Gaps In Coup 1884
  • Japan attempted to take over Korea
  • Pro japan officials took over Korea government
  • Let to military engagement between japan and China
  • Convention of Tianjin 1885
  • Akai -Ito Convention”
  • Both sides would withdraw from korea militarily
  • Gabo Reforms 1894-1896
  • Pro Japanese officials gained influence and instituted the Gabo Reforms
  • Attempt to transform Joseon society to become modern
  • Currency reform ties Korean currency to the yen
  • Abolish civil service exam (old fashioned)
  • Donghak Peasant Rebellion 1895
  • Movement from the peasants to throw the foreigners out
  • King Gojong is terrified, turns to China government for military support (but doesn’t tell Japan)
  • Chinese government support was lackluster
  • But Japan finds out and uses this as an excuse to militarily move into Korea
  • They quell the rebellion and declare war against china --> First Sino Japanese War

First Sino Japanese War

  • China: bought most of their weaponry, since it was slow to produce modern weapons
  • Japan
  • Quick to produce and kept military updated
  • Not at first wanted to produce ships, they bought them from the french
  • Cruisers: small fast, and cheaper to produce
  • Japanese transforms the image of China to inferior premodern and demasculinized
  • Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895
  • Ended the first sino japanese war
  • Raised Japan equal to other foreigners
  • Japan could build factories in Chinese treaty ports
  • Forced Korea to sever tributary ties to China
  • China had to give Taiwan and Liaodong Peninsula to japan
  • Most favored nation status
  • Triple intervention
  • Germany, Russia, France intervene
  • They say that Liaodong peninsula is too much and chased Japan out
  • China had a “sphere of atmosphere” to Russia
  • Japan becomes frustrated
  • Assassination of Queen Min 1895
  • Japanese troops murder Queen Min
  • Gojong and son rune to Russian embassy and liver there
  • This further escalates the Russian and Japanese tension
  • Korean empire is now in between Russian and Japanese power

Japan and Russia go to War: Russo Japanese War

  • “Great Game”
  • Rivalry between Russian and British
  • Took sides when Afghanistan had fighting wares
  • Anglo Japanese Alliance
  • Military alliance between japan and english
  • Served as a sign to Russia
  • Russia: anti semitic period
  • “Pale of sentiments” led to a large population of Jews send to China
  • Battles in railroad towns in Liaodong peninsulas
  • Russia underestimates japan
  • Battle of Tsushima
  • Japan destroys all of Russian navy
  • American presence
  • Big missionary presence
  • Education
  • Agreed Memorandum” : Taft - Katsura
  • Secret agreement wink wink ; )
  • Addressed to TR about Japan not interfering against the Philippines if US doesn’t mess with japan's takeover at Korea
  • Revolution in Russia, and so it doesn't have time to deal with Korean and Japan
  • Eulsa Treaty
  • “Japan Korea Treaty of 1905”
  • Protectorate: Japan controls Korea’s Foreign Policy

Japan into Greater Japan        11/2

  • Absorbs Taiwan, and eventually Korea
  • Begins to expand into east asia
  • “Pan Asian Discourse”
  • Let by japanese scholars
  • “Asia is one” - argued that Asian is basically one entity
  • Japan is the most advanced and leading role in Pan asia -- and they tried to support the idea
  • Japan can help make a greater asia
  • Japan seek Korean collaborators, primarily through the Yangban
  • Yangbans were primarily literate and had written proof of ownership of lands
  • Peasants did not, and so they were kicked out and land went to the Oriental Development Company
  • Common people lose their traditional rights to land as Japanese companies came and bought land
  • Manchukuo:  Korea served as an agriculture resource from Japan
  • 1. First decade
  • Authoritarian
  • Harsh assimilationist Policies
  • Some koreans had the option to change their names into Japanese names -- severing a major identity change
  • Korean language is banned
  • Tries to get rid of Korean culture
  • March 1, 1919 uprising : Korean protest
  • Peaceful uprising: formal declaration of independence
  • Put down in a very bloody manner
  • Modern educated women participated
  • Japanese people are shocked and they change their policy
  • 2. Associationist Rule
  • Japanese empire is an association of people
  • Cultural policy
  • Korean language is allowed again
  • Koreans became second class citizens in their own country
  • 3. Assimilation returns again
  • Name change laws of 1939/40: forbids yangbans from changing their names to Japanese
  • Capital renamed
  • Hanseong is named Keijo
  • Capital used to ba walled, but then the Japanese tore it down and modernized the capital
  • Oriental Development Company
  • Joint cooperation with government blessing
  • Licences and monopoly

China

  • 1911 Xinhai Revolution
  • Ching dynasty dies, pretty quickly and the two contenders for leading is Sun Yat Sen and Yuan Shikai
  • Shinkai becomes the President of Beiyang republic
  • Military led government
  • Chaos broke out
  • Warlord period
  • No central government
  • The collapse of China was used as an excuse for the west to carve out China
  • WWI begins
  • First major European conflict
  • The colonized countries realize the weakness and carnage of the West
  • Japanese saw WWI as an amazing opportunity
  • Fought on alice's side and so they took advantage of German concessions
  • Japanese action in the war
  • Tsing Tao: siege by sea
  • Aircraft carrier Wakayama (foreshadowing of Japanese's insight ot importance of military air force)
  • World’s first naval launched Air Roads at Tsingtao in 1914
  • Spoils of the war
  • Japan takes over Germany’s sphere of influence in China (Shandong Peninsula)
  • Japan also took control of pacific Islands that Germany had Dalian is officially recognized as japanese territory
  • This becomes a huge market for illegal drugs (opium, heroin)
  • Become huge after the Treaty of Versailles and banns the opium trade
  • 21 Demands
  • Japan issues to the Chinese government
  • 5 groups of demands
  • 1. Shandong Province
  • Sphere of influence in Southern Manchuria
  • Many railways
  • 3. Hanyeping Mining and Metallurgical complex
  • 4. Barred China from giving away further coastal or island concessions to foreign powers except Japan
  • 5. ~secret~ Turned China into a Japanese Protectorate
  • Japanese appointed into the Chinese Government
  • However, the US refused #5 due to “open door policy”
  • Changed into the 13 demands
  • Yuan Shin Kwi lost of a of credibility
  • Starts to move towards to look like an emperor and declared himself as one
  • All the generals laughed at him and marks the start of the the warlord period
  • Women liberalization
  • Suffragist movement
  • Getting women the right to vote
  • 1920s, apolitical fashion for women globally to remove themselves from the patriarchy and family
  • Become financially and secually independent
  • Early technologies of birth control (which were illegal)
  • Under Japanese colonial rule, protestant missionaries from the US came and Korean women were able to get educated

Taisho Democracy        11/7

  • Taisho Emperor 1917 - 1926
  • After 1922, his soul fell apart, and disappeared from public life. His son, Hirohito stepped in
  • Taisho Democracy: a 2 party system
  • Seiyukai Party (Liberty party)
  • Argued in favor of increasing executive power
  • Greater participation of government in public life
  • Kensaikai Party (Constitutionalist Party)
  • Communist labor Union
  • Both Korea and Japan merge with the older party and kept changing its name
  • Government should respect the constitution
  • Limit its participation in the society
  • More literal
  • Peace Preservation Law of 1925
  • To outlaw the communist party
  • Japanese women GET IT TOGETHER
  • Sumptuary legislation: long hair, good wife, good mother
  • The only occupation before was sex work, but now after the industrial revolution gives women opportunities
  • Service jobs
  • Financial independence
  • Modan Garu: Mo Go “Modern Girl”
            New shocking fashions
  • Access to automobile and transportation’
  • Advertising in women’s magazine
  • Naomi - scandalous Femme Fatale
  • Japanese Expansion
  • Siberian intervention 1918 - 1922
  • Japanese problematic relation with Russia
  • Washington Naval Treaty Conference
  • Unintended consequence :
  • Japan Increasingly alienated from the West
  • Anglo-Japanese Alliance ends 1923
  • Great Kanto Earthquake and Fire (1923)
  • Fireproof construction, but not earthquake proof
  • Tokyo was quickly rebuilt
  • Government issued bonds for insurance company
  • Insurance company

Nationalist regime in China        11/9

  • Secret Societies : Anti Qing, labor contractors, organized crime syndicates
  • Remaining warlords still retained partial control and taxing authority
  • End of Northern Expedition
  • Shanghai is secured
  • Warlords had to fight or ally
  • Kwantung Leased Territory
  • Kwantung Bureau” an Opium Control Agency
  • Head of the bureau was ishimoto kantaro --> Japanese opium merchant
  • Active participation in Illegal Drug Trade
  • “Smoking opium” refined opiates and opioids (morphine, heroin)
  • Fake opium addiction “cures” or “red pills”
  • Golden Butt Cigarettes were advertised as opium cures
  • But these contained opiates and opioids (heroin)
  • The Kwantung army does not rely on Tokyo financially
  • The army used South Manchuria railway company to kill Zhang Zhuolin in the Manchurian Incident 1931
  • World’s attention on financial crash of summer 1931 pressure on Britain to leave the gold standard
  • Japan marched into Manchuria using the Kwantung army (unpopular at a government level, but not unpopular at the people)
  • Chinese people were resistant and repelled the Japanese
  • 1933, Japan withdraws from the League

Japan withdraws from the League of Nations

  • Tanggu Truce - May 31 1933
  • Guomindang truce with Japan, since they had no control anyways
  • Japanese concession at Tanjian
  • Supported the Chinese emperor Puyi and demilitarized the zone
  • The Kwantung army recruited Puyi to become emperor again so he can be a figurehead through the Japanese
  • Japan created puppet regimes all over NE China (Manchukuo)
  • 1934 - 1936 Civil war against the remaining communist
  • Lang March: movement from south to north
  • Eventually it rooted out all of the communists
  • Manchukuo was a good source of raw materials: steel mills, coal mines, hydroelectric facilities near North Korea
  • Expansion of opium production at local markets
  • Koreans were incentivized to migrate by japanese
  • Moving into China meant receiving Japanese extraterritorial rights -- this worked
  • Rise of Military Rule in Japan
  • Major attempts to take control of the government
  • “October Incident” 1931
  • Tries to overthrow the civilian part of the government
  • Re-establish Showa emperor to take control of country
  • Notion that Hirobumi constitution was not legit
  • “League of Blood Incident”
  • Assassinators of liberal - moderate leaders
  • Many PMs and cabinet officers are killed
  • This leads to the nickname of Government by Assassination
  • Feb 26th Incident 1926
  • Military coupe, declared a Showa restoration, and declared Meiji Government illegitimate
  • Hirohito refused to participate before, but after Showa restoration:
  • He referred certain institutions
  • Increased executive control
  • Generalissimo of  Military
  • “Imperial General Headquarters Government Liaison Office”
  • Leaders of military civilian side
  • 1936 Hirohito funded Unit 731
  • Japanese army that invaded China.
  • They experimented with chemical warfare research and biological weapon research on live human experiments
  • Shiro Ishii : fucked up
  • Traded his knowledged to the US so he wouldn’t be prosecuted as a war criminal
  • “Anti Comintern Pact” : Japan Nazi Germany
  • Gernay recognized Manchukuo as Japanese
  • This turns against the communists and USSR
  • Xian Incident
  • Zhang Xueliang: convened a conference of higher ups from Guangdong and communists and KIDNAPPED THEM and Chiang Kai Shek
  • KMT + CCP declare a United Front against the Japanese
  • Zhang Xueliang is impressed by Chiang Kai Shek
  • WWII BATTLES
  • Marco Polo Bridge Incident 1937
  • Start of WWII in Asia
  • Battle of Shanghai
  • Japanese bombing of Zhabei (Shanghai)
  • First urban civil bombing during WWII
  • Signified an on set of Japan's conquest of China
  • Nanjing Massacre
  • All men were killed (severed heads)
  • Systematic raping (“comfort women”
  • John Rabe (Nazi) organized foreigners to establish national zones
  • Nohohon Incident
  • Series of battles between soviets and the japanese
  • Tank Battles near the Manchukuo border
  • Pacts
  • Molotov Ribbentrop Pact or “Hitler Stalin Pact”
  • Europe is now divided
  • Axis Pact: Japan Italy Germany
  • Neutrality Pact: Japan + USSR (April 13 1941)
  • Germany Invades Russia, but Japan still refuses to join the war
  • Japan did not persecute Jews in East Asia
  • TranS siberian Railway was the only safe route for Jew to get to East Asia
  • Sugihara Chiune : Signed 1000s of visas for Jews to get into Japan

Japan invading everywhere

  • Japan takes over French Indochina in Northern Vietnam 1940 in Sept.
  • By July 1941, Japan had taken Southern Vietnam
  • US reaction to Japan’s Occupation of Indochina
  • July 23 1941, Froze Japanese assets
  • Aug 1st 1941, Impose Oil embargo
  • Dec 7 : Invasion of Southeast Asia
  • Pearl Harbor boop
  • Pearl harbor was targeted since all of its navy and aircraft carriers were there. They hit mostly battleships
  • US is pissed af
  • Bicycle Invasion of Malaysia aka the Silent Invasion
  • Began 45 mins before Pearl Harbor
  • British had set up defences in Singapore facing outward anticipating a naval attack
  • Still, after Repulse and the Prince of Wales (UK Battleships) sunk Dec 10 1941, it becomes clear the Malaysia will fall to Japan
  • Destruction of strategic resources: rubber and palm oil using planes and bombs
  • After General Percival gives up Singapore to japan, the reas of the SEA fell too
  • POW camps death rates were high because the Europeans had no immunity against tropical diseases
  • Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere (Greater Asian Cooperation)
  • Japanese propaganda campaign
  • “Liberate Asia from Colonial Control”
  • Nationalist parties emerge: and Japan reaches out to them
  • They claim that they did not want to rule directly
  • Nisei participation in WWII on the European front
  • Operation Ichigo 1944: trying to control East China and doubling down
  • General Curtis Lemay:
  • Wanted to move away from strategic bombing
  • Shift to terror bombing
  • Used a jelly call napalm to firebomb tokyo
  • March Firebombing Campaign
  • Bombs kansai ports and islands
  • Widespread firebombing: the scorched earth
  • After Germany surrenders, US calls for the unconditional surrender of Japan in the Potsdam Declaration
  • Atomic bomb on HiroShima
  • Nagasaki
  • USSR entered the war against Japan
  • Japan is blindsided by the Soviet entry
  • USSR entered in Northeast china: tried to fight the Kwantung army and defeated it, and gave weapons to Chinese communists
  • They also moved into north Korea.
  • “USSR didn’t win the war but they won the peace”
  • Japan makes efforts to surrender to the US and tries to protect the monarchy
  • Hirohito would stay in power
  • 38th parallel that roughly divides Korea in half. North would be USSR and South would be US

After the War

  • Military Occupation of Japan
  • General Double McArthur
  • Return to Manila 1944
  • Arrives in Tokyo
  • SCAP
  • Product of FDR’s New Deal
  • Embracing defeat: Japan in the wake of WWII
  • People expected US policies in Japan to be harsh
  • But they were quite lenient -- mild and liberal military occupation
  • “Soft power”
  • 1950s - Japan’s huge amount of exports in the world
  • Trash sci-fi movies
  • Anime, manga, jpop
  • Japanese fashion
  • Process of trying to humanize the Japanese emperor
  • Depicted in normal not military attire
  • The US wanted to keep the emperor as an ally and had to sanitize his image:
  • “Blameless bystander”
  • McArthur forced Hirohito to go on “goodwill tours” in various small towns of Japan
  • Needed Japanese people to encounter him as a human to destroy his divine myth
  • Comfort Women
  • Women were drawn into the workforce during the war
  • After the war, they dominated society:
  • Young women engaged in factory work
  • Had engaged in commercial sex work
  • Comfort stations
  • Human trafficking: force or promises of employment
  • Military brothels
  • Ssexual enslavement
  • Many organized by military but some were privatized
  • Little reliable data on exact numbers -- 200,000 as a conservative estimate
  • Majority were korean and Chinese, but many other vulnerable women from East Asia in SEA as well
  • Women who were subjected to this and were soiled and rejected by their families
  • 1980s, women began coming forward and told their stories, especially in Korea
  • 4th Right Movement: demands an apology from Japan
  • US occupying forces kept the comfort stations open until 1946
  • Closing them mostly because of spread of diseases, not morello
  • SCAP officially discourages “fraternization”
  • Babyson - a cartoon depiction of generic Japanese sex worker

Laws and Stuff

  • Yoshida Shigeru becomes Prime minister of Japan
  • He is in power 1946- 1954
  • “liberal “ (Super conservative) party
  • People wanted Meiji Constitution: 1947 Constitution
  • Current constitution originally drafted in English by occupying forces
  • Parliamentary democracy : legitimacy of government through elections
  • Emperor is demoted to a symbol of the nation
  • Old hereditary aristocracy is thrown out
  • Article 9
  • War is not a sovereign right of the nation
  • Remains as a part of the constitution
  • Partially sidestepped with special defence force
  • 1946 Land Reform
  • Fundamentally changed the nature of Japanese society
  • Owner cultivators
  • Absentee landlords became illegal
  • Corporate and absentee land holdings were purchased by the state at a low fixed price
  • Sold to the tenant farmers at the same price
  • Inflation:rumored to former land owners
  • Major Social change
  • Landlord class is eliminated
  • Corporate land ownership is gone
  • There is a new class of “Owner cultivator”
  • Tokyo War Crimes Trials
  • International Military Tribunal
  • 7 are sentenced to death
  • 16 are sentenced to life in prison
  • Iva Toguri is prosecuted during a treason trial “Tokyo Rose”
  • The fictional character by Walter WInchell depicts her as a villain
  • American Policy in Japan
  • Deindustrialization Policy
  • Zaibatsu corporations to be dismantled (Zaibatsu is the Japanese versions of Chaebols)
  • Zaibatsu developed in the Meiji Period
  • Huge family owned vertically integrated corporations
  • Major players in the 1st half of the 20th century
  • Take a huge part in Manchuria and Korea when moving in
  • US blamed the zaibatsus for contributing to the war
  • In 1949, US reversal -- ended the dismantling of the Zaibatsus and allowed them to reorganize into Keiretsus (see below)
  • Dodge Line:
  • Deflation economics policy imposed on Japan
  • Opposite of Marshall Plan
  • Yen is pegged to the $
  • Exploiting was made difficult
  • After USSR exploded a nuclear bomb, the US policy changed in japan to become harsh : “Reverse Course”
  • Industrialize Japan to go back to agricultural state
  • Japan becomes a new frontline
  • Massive investments in Japanese Industry
  • Sweetheart Deals
  • Korean War Stimulate the Japanese economy
  • Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)
  • Designed to orchestrate japanese recovery and industry
  • Keiretsu: Partially reintegrated zaibatsus
  • No longer fully vertically integrated
  • Contributes to the emergence of the dual economy
  • Fuel economy: large corporations but also smaller mom and pop stores both thrive
  • Organized around banks and wester style board of directors
  • Treaties of San Francisco (twin Treaty)
  • Created by John Foster Douglas and Yoshida
  • Security Treaty
  • Japan is now under the military protection of the US
  • This was controversial, since Japan still had a lively one party system with strong left liberal parties
  • Yoshida Doctrine: Japan removes itself
  • Low diplomatic profile
  • Less military spending
  • Functions like a client state of the US
  • Focus on developing most modern infrastructure
  • Yoshida wanted Japan to flourish in contrast to the other communist countries -- focus on economic development

  • Golden Age of japanese Cinema
  • Suspension of censorship
  • Few, cheap entertainment
  • 7 samurai
  • Japanese exports
  • Ministry of international trade and industry
  • Failed to consolidate
  • Refused to merge
  • Expanded
  • Car industry!!
  • June 1960, there were mass protests
  • Student demonstrations and students died
  • Kishi Nobusuke is forced to resign and replaced by hayato (38th PM of Japan)
  • Socially progressive legislation quiets Japanese population from protests
  • National monument
  • Universal health insurance
  • Old age pensions
  • “Income Doubling Scheme”
  • Expanding economy rapidly so that income of Japanese families would double
  • Era of high growth 1960s-1980s
  • Taxed high income families at a high rate
  • Most overly distributed GDP
  • Tokyo Tower is rebuilt
  • Participates in the 1964 Olympics
  • Shinkansen high speed trains
  • Subways system was greatly
  • 3 Jewels of japanese Employment Model:
  1. LIfetime employment
  2. Seniority wages
  3. Enterprise unions
  1. Trade unions but no independe to corporations
  2. This led to fewer strikes
  • “Salary Man”
  • Nomikai: afterwork drinking parties
  • Capsule hotels
  • Commutes were exhausting
  • Structural deterrents for working married women
  • Tax deterrents
  • “benefits “ deterrents
  • Plaza Accord 1985
  • A meeting of the leading countries about financial currency. Aim was a massive depreciation of the yen by 1/2.
  • Japan was unable to export cheaper things, and only continue exported high price things like cars
  • Bubble Economy
  • Focuses on high savings economy banking scheme through post offices
  • Life insurance offered
  • Japanese started to spend a lot more since yen was valued more
  • Stock market and housing bubble burst, and everyone got into debt

Death of Hirohito: the beginning of the Heisei era - “Lost Decade”

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