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Psychology – Seeks to Measure, Explain and Sometimes Change the Behavior of Human and Other Animals

Autor:   •  June 19, 2015  •  Book/Movie Report  •  904 Words (4 Pages)  •  617 Views

Page 1 of 4

Chap 1

Psychology – seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behavior of human and other animals

  • Learning
  • Motivation
  • Personality
  • Emotions
  • Perception
  • Training
  • Leadership effectiveness
  • Job satisfaction
  • Individual decision making
  • Performance appraisal
  • Attitude measurement
  • Employee selection
  • Work design
  • Work stress

Sociology – the study of people in relation to their social environment or culture

  • Behavioral change
  • Attitude change
  • Communication
  • Group processes
  • Group decision making

Chapter 2

Departmentalization is the basis which jobs are grouped together.

By function – an organization might departmentalize the jobs into accounting, finance, sales and marketing, human resource. Advantages are efficiencies gained from putting specialists together.

By products or services – a bookstore is departmentalized by types of books they sold, such as reference book, magazines and so on. Advantages – increased accountability for performance because all activities related to specific products are under the direction of a single manager

By geographic – sales function may have north, east, south and west region. This is useful when an organization’s customers are scattered over a large geographical area and have a similar needs based on their location.

By process – For instance, you may go through to several processing departments when you get a driver’s license such as validation of the motor vehicle division, processing by the licensing department and payment collection department. Efficiencies by speeding up the processing work

By customer – for example, Microsoft is organized around four customer markets, consumers, large corporation, software developer and small businesses. Specialist can focus on providing them the best service according to their demand.

 Matrix structure

  • Creates dual lines of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization
  • Strength of functional departmentalization is minimizes the number necessary by putting specialists together, while product departmentalization has facilitates coordination among specialties to achieve on-time completion and meet budget targets.
  • Gain the advantages of functional and product departmentalization while avoiding their weaknesses.
  • Facilitates coordination of complex and interdependent activities. Direct and frequent contacts between different specialties in the matrix can let information more quickly reach the person who need it
  • Breaks the unity-of-command concept. Employees in the matrix have two bosses: their functional department manager and product managers.
  • Tendency to foster power struggles and the stress it places on individuals. Reporting to more than one boss introduces role conflict, and unclear expectations introduce role ambiguity.

Virtual organization

  • A small, core organization that outsources major business functions.
  • Highly centralized with little or no departmentalization
  • Advantages: allows individuals with innovative idea and little money to successfully compete against larger, more established organizations. Save a lot of money by eliminating permanent offices and hierarchical roles.
  • Disadvantages: their roles, goals and responsibilities are unclear. Difficulty of communication due to geographically dispersed lead to difficult in sharing information and knowledge, which can limit innovation and slow response time.

Chap 4

Management function

  • Planning
  • A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities
  • E.g writing business plan
  • Organizing
  • Determining what tasks are to be done, who will do them , how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, where decisions are to be made
  • E.g hiring and placing personnel to various department
  • Leading
  • Motivating and directing employees, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
  • E.g motivating employees with slogan & award presentation
  • Controlling
  • Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations
  • E.g quality control process to ensure required standard of output is met


  • Figurehead : perform duties of a legal or social nature
  • Leader: motivate and directing employees
  • Liaison: maintains a network of outside contacts who provide information


  • Monitor: receives wide variety of information
  • Disseminator: transmit information received to members of organization
  • Spokesperson: transmit information to outsiders on organization’s plans, policies


  • Entrepreneur: searches for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change
  • Disturbance handler: take corrective action when organization faces important disturbances
  • Resource allocator: makes significant organizational decisions
  • Negotiator: representing the organization at major negotiations

Management skills:

  • Technical skills
  • The ability to apply some specialized knowledge or expertise
  • Not all technical skills have to be learned in the schools. Many people develop technical skills on the jobs
  • Human skills
  • The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people
  • Manager must have a good human skills because they get things done through other people
  • Conceptual skills
  • The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

Chap 5

Ohio State Studies

  • Initiating studies
  • The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment
  • Includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationship and goals
  • Consideration
  • The extent to which a leader is likely to have a job relationship characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regards for their feelings.
  • Help employees with personal problems, treats employees as equals.

University of Michigan Studies

  • Employee-oriented leader
  • Show genuine concern for interpersonal relations; accepting individual differences among members
  • Employees are viewed as human being with personal needs
  • Production-oriented leader
  • One who focus on technical or task aspects of the job
  • Employees are viewed as the means of getting the work done


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