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Discussion on the Sustainability of Sanitation System in Australia

Autor:   •  October 3, 2016  •  Coursework  •  1,108 Words (5 Pages)  •  411 Views

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Executive summary

This report aim to discuss the sustainability of sanitation system to avoid the issue that human disease and environment pollution. In Australia, a relatively complete sanitation system has constructed, however, it still needs to complete in rural area,which is due to scarce of technology use and Australian unique climate. As an consequence, some outcomes are increasingly serious, such as overloading nutrient, transmission of pathogens and depletion of water and soil. Basis on an research, this report gives some recommendations, including suggesting a better treatment of waste, transforming technology into practice, and constructing wetland. The significant of this report is to focus on water and sanitation infrastructure, to benefit hundreds million citizens and public health.

1. Issue Discussion

In general, comparing with most countries, Australia, which is a developed country, has already constructed a system of sanitation. However, in a long-term, Australian current sanitation still lack sustainability, which could promote the transmission of several pathogens, causes a series of environmental pollution and waste of freshwater resources. For some examples, the toilets which could not divert urine raise the risk of disease (Sankaran, Abeysuriya, Gray & Kachenko, 2010). The alternative of water closet is a trade-off between disposing waste and diverting waste, however the latter may cause a waste of freshwater (Cummings, Wright & Bonollo 2001, pp. 47-55). Furthermore, simultaneously, the water and soil resources are losing, and the scarce of disposing waste water leads to environmental problems. In addition, there is a require of an efficient indicators to judge how these systems of water supply and sanitation performance (Cummings, Wright & Bonollo 2001, pp. 47-55). Overall, for development of sustainability, a complete system of sanitation is necessary, which will benefit the environment, economics and human health.

There are some main elements which contribute this issue.

1.1 incomplete sanitation indicators

Existing sanitation needs an advantageous tool to assist evaluate the performance of present sanitation systems. This is a barrier to examine, evaluate, and improve current situation, to analysis the reuse system, waste dispose system, water supply system and the risk of human disease. Without providing competent indicators contribute this situation that  identifying where needs improvement and make a decision to change it could not be realized (Upadhyaya & Moore 2012, pp. 674-688).

1.2 scarce of technology use

An alternative exist in whether use the flush volumes of water closets. Obviously, using volumes is benefit to public health by giving up a large amount of water resources. It is proved that using flush volume is a better way which reduce the risk of residents infected by pathogens though human waste. However, new technology is requested to reduce the use of water as much as possible (Cummings, Wright & Bonollo 2001, pp. 47-55).

1.3 Australian unique climate

Australia is a large continent which has limited water resources, a small amount of rainfall , seasonal rain and rapid growth of population place an strains on water allocation. Additionally, there are some extent droughts in rural area, pressure irrigation in agriculture and living beings drinking. In this situation, a large list of methods in restricting water waste, preserving water resources, and reusing the waste water after some treatment are required (Cummings, Wright & Bonollo 2001, pp. 47-55).

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