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Jollibee - Case Study Analysis

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Category: Business

Autor: andrew 08 March 2011

Words: 4956 | Pages: 20

Executive Summary

The case gives an idea about how the competition influenced Jollibee's strategy, both domestic and international. Jollibee ,which was a Filipino chain of restaurants, was forced to change their strategy with the entry of McDonalds in Philippines, which later transformed the company into a global company .The company faced serious challenges with their international exposure. The challenges included the conflicts with franchisees/Joint venture and conflicts between divisions. Another issue that the company faced was the entry into Papa New Guinea, United States of America and expansion plans in Hong Kong. The company has to consider the financial instability it faces while considering their plans. In the analysis we have tried to cover the effectiveness of strategies adopted by Mr Tony Kitchner (Former International Division head).

This case analysis report deals with, firstly the key management challenges faced by the company, followed by some supporting arguments. In the management issues, the report focuses into the conflicting areas or the need to establish a greater cooperation and coordination between the Domestic and International divisions.

Then, the recommendations regarding what should the company do differently in each of its department like in Marketing, HR, Finance or Operations, to succeed in its plans of global expansion. Finally, the feasibility of the three decisions that the new management has taken is also discussed.

We have also tried to analyse the dilemma faced by Mr. Tingzon regarding the opportunities of international expansions to Papa New Guinea, Hong Kong and USA.

Jollibee Foods Corporation- International Expansion: Case Analysis

a. Industry Analysis

A fast food restaurant or Rapid Service Eatery (RSE) has the following 3 characteristics.

1. It is characterized by its fast food cuisine and nominal table service.

2. It offers limited menu, cooked in bulk in advance, kept hot, finished, packaged to order, and available to take-out, drive-thru, and dine-in.

3. It is usually a part of a chain or franchise operation, which supplies standardized ingredients and/or partially prepared foods and provisions to each restaurant through controlled supply channels.

McDonald's is one of the most famous RSE in the world. McDonald's became No.1 in every country of more than 100 countries in the world except Philippines where JFC has been overwhelming strength against McDonald's.

JFC was founded by Chinese-Filipino Mr. Tony Tan Caktiong (TTC) as the ice-cream parlor at Cubao City in 1975. Gradually, it grew up to a reasonably large fast food chain in Philippines.

Further, JFC started scouting avenues for expansion internationally. Thus it opened its franchises in countries like U.S.A., Brunei, Hong Kong, Guam, Middle East, etc.

Assuming, Mc Donald's was the chief competitor of JFC in Philippines we have made an analysis of the strategies adopted by both the organizations.

In order to analyze the strategy, we have utilized the following two tools.

a) Four-Tier Structure of Market

b) Type of Glocalization

A. FOUR-TIER STRUCTURE OF MARKET

Khanna & Palepu (2006) introduced the Four-Tiered Structure of Market. They insisted that most product markets comprise four distinct tires: global, glocal, local, and regional.

In Global segment, products of global quality with global features at global prices are offered. In Glocal segment, products of global quality with local features (and local soul) at less than global prices are offered. In local segment, local products with local features at local prices are offered.

B. TYPE OF GLOCALIZATION

As objectives of glocalization can be product/service and business model, there are two types of glocalization.

 Product/service glocalization

 Business model glocalization.

The following charts give an overview of strategies adopted by JFC and Mc Donald's.

a. Porter's competitive strategies Model

b. Type of Glocalization (Products/Services vs. Business Model)

b. Firm Analysis

SWOT ANALYSIS OF JFC:

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

a. Jollibee was a regional industry leader that had experienced professionals as chief executives of the organization.

b. Proven past performance made dealings with prospective partners easier.

c. Wide variety of products offered in diverse markets.

a. Lacked more effective marketing skills as growth revenues decreased.

b. Lack on in-depth planning and research in the expansion to foreign markets.

c. Poor co-ordination between the national and international units.

OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

a. The promising nature of international markets and also the available potential due to the migration of Filipinos in certain countries.

b. Being an agricultural country, full integration in sourcing raw materials could be done.

c. For international markets, locating commissaries in the same country through joint ventures could be a potential source of success for the company. Jollibee could facilitate the technology provision while the partner could formulate the appropriate modus operandi to sell in the foreign market.

d. For the local market, an increase in the number of commissaries could easily reduce the transportation costs and the duration of shipments. This would allow the company to concentrate on the quality of products.

a. Competition from both international companies and other local eateries.

b. Political instability in the country threatened JFC as it could hamper the opportunities to convince international investors and country leaders to allow a JFC entry in their country.

c. Driving Forces

Analysis of Tony Kitchner's Strategy

a. Marketing Perspective

Jollibee was able to attain a competitive advantage in Philippines over McDonald's by doing following things:

• First mover advantage - Jollibee was the first to enter the market.

Analysis of Tony Kitchner's Strategy

In 1994 Tony Kitchner was hired to head the International Division. He was successful over his three years. He was successful in creating wealth and increasing the presence in countries that had less or no competition. During his time the total number of stores increased 65% to 205 from the end of 1993 to the end of 1996. Moreover the total sales increased over 94.5% over the same period These increases are dramatic. Very few companies can experience rapid growth like this. He always had the idea to be the first -mover into untapped markets as he believed that although you may incur losses in the initial years, which can be cross subsidized from Philippines operation, the company will be able to restrict the entry of its competitors. But these do not show the whole picture of his strategy implementation. There were instances of shutdown of stores due to mounting losses .The chaotic strategy of investments unsupported by proper research failed costly for the company. His strategy of targeting expats had the risk of targeting a narrow segment. The lifestyle, tastes and preferences of the expats was also not considered during international expansion.

a. Marketing Perspective

Jollibee was able to attain a competitive advantage in Philippines over McDonald's by doing following things:

• Jollibee was the first to enter the market.

• Retaining tight control over operations management, which

• Allowing it to price below its competitor.

• Having the flexibility to cater to the tastes of its local consumers.

As Jollibee entered international markets, it faced new challenges. The fast food industry is highly competitive and price wars and marketing innovations are seen frequently. The rivalry is also centered on the key success factors of the industry, which are good food, good, service and reasonable pricing. Rivals are somewhat equal in capabilities and opportunities, thus making the competition stiffer. Internationally well-established players like KFC and McDonalds had high brand values that Jollibee found difficult to compete with. The threat of substitute products is considerable. Local street food and high-end restaurants form two ends of a range of substitutes. Potential entrants face entry barriers that will hinder them from entering the industry. These are the inability to gain access to technology and specialized know-how, brand preference and customer loyalty, capital requirements, economies of scale, and strategically situated distribution channels.

Tony Kitchner was hired to build the global Jollibee brand with the dual goals of positioning Jollibee as an attractive partner, while generating resources for expansion. In order to become one of the "top 10 fast food brands in the world," Kitchner implemented a two-part international strategy which comprised of "targeting expats" and "planting the flag."

1. TARGETING EXPATS

Kitchner's idea of "targeting expats" allows the company to ease its transition into an unfamiliar market. Although there is the risk of targeting too narrow of a segment, Jollibee's success in the niche market would allow it generate momentum for the company's expansion. The concentrated marketing campaign allows the company to generate stable revenues that can be used to support Jollibee's entry into other segments, while the popularity amongst expats could generate publicity and attract walk-in traffic from non-Filipinos.

Recommendation:

"Targeting expats" will only lead Jollibee to become a global brand if:

a. Jollibee correctly targets expats who have a need and want for the product and thus avoid repeating its mistake in the Middle East.

b. The company continues to build its competitive advantage through learning and by appealing to a broader audience.

2. PLANT THE FLAG

On the other hand, Kitchner's decision to "plant the flag" reflected a desire to build an empire under his leadership, rather than a strategically sound decision for the firm. Although Kitchner hoped to leverage Jollibee's competitive advantage by entering new geographic market, his rapid expansion strategy was unfocused and poorly executed. Kitchner also neglected to consider the large transaction costs associated with establishing markets in new countries. Kitchner's desire to be first-mover in a number of small, undeveloped markets would not have brought the prestige needed to win the firm better partners. "Planting the flag" only showed that Jollibee knew how to repeat its success.

Recommendation

Market research prior to entering new markets will help in avoiding the unprofitable ventures as in the Middle East. In order to compete on the level with multinationals, rather than just being a first mover, Jollibee would have to take its performance to the next step and prove that it could continue to build its competitive advantage.

b. Financial Management Perspective

Jollibee's sales, net income, operating income, and royalties and franchise fees has been increasing rapidly for the period under study. The total number of stores increased 65% to 205 from the end of 1993 to the end of 1996. By 1996, sales had increased to 8.57 billion which translates to a market share of more than 50% among all hamburger fast food chains. Total assets increased over 230% in the same period. Moreover operating income increased about 114% while net income increased over 100% during the same period. These increases are dramatic. Significantly Inventory decreased from about 11.5% in 1992 to just 7.5% in 96. This implies that less of the current assets were tied up inventory. During the same period the trade accounts receivables has increased from 8.4% in 1992 to 12.7% in 1996. Jollibee was able to compensate for this increase by corresponding increase in sales and hence this need not be a cause of concern.

On the other hand, all is not well with the financials of Jollibee. There was 28.9 million pesos of long-term debt outstanding at the end of year 1996. Cost of sales has increased each year with an increase of about 46% from the end of 95 to the end of 96. But during this same period, total sales only increased about 28.7%. This escalation in the cost of sales must be brought under control

Accounts payable and accrued expenses increased by about 156% from 94 to 96. In addition, earnings per share decreased 19% to 0.68 pesos per share from 94 to 96. Jollibee has debt and some financial instability; however it is not something they can't overcome. They have 24 stores in foreign countries, which account for roughly $9 million in sales. This is an encouraging sign as far as Jollibee is concerned and they will be able to pay off their debts and loans.

One thing they should consider doing is slowing down expansion. Jollibee should consider opening a store and giving it time to grow and turn a profit before it finances the opening of a new store. Opening new stores requires a lot of financing. They must study markets to determine a location, buy furniture, purchase kitchen appliances, and train new managers and employees. Opening multiple stores at the same time will hurt the bottom line and will increase debt. It took McDonald's 20 years for their international operations to account for 50% of total sales. Also, they must reduce cost of sales. During the period under study the cost of sales has increased at a faster pace than the sales increase, which is not acceptable.

The company has good internal financial resources but a certain code should be maintained in the relationship with the franchisee. Also, the allocation of the financial resources needs to be done wisely and judiciously. This is where there has to be collaboration between the marketing and finance department. The feasibility (financial) of opening up a new store needs to be studied before going ahead with the decision.

c. Operations Management Perspective

From the very beginning Jollibee Foods Corporation had focused on delivering quality food and service at an affordable cost to the customers. This had been possible only due to excellent operational control.

They enjoyed a dominant position in the fast food market in Philippines until McDonalds entered the market. To take on McDonalds, they focused on their main asset, their knowledge of taste and preferences of the local population. This strategy paid off initially but slowly McDonalds caught up. To maintain their market share and counter the growing popularity of McDonalds Big Mac sandwich they came up with their USP, a large hamburger named Champ which contained a wide hamburger patty as against Big Mac which had two small patties.

Once Jollibee Food Corporation was well established in Philippines, TTC's decision to expand overseas was a good bet. But due to their inexperience and wrong choice of partners they suffered losses in their initial foreign ventures. In Singapore there were too many partners thus hindering smooth operation.

In Taiwan there were disputes over management of local operations. In a franchise arrangement standardisation of operations is the most essential factor. But in this case the local partner was objecting to the presence of company employees.

ISSUES- HIRING OF AN OUTSIDER:

Hiring a professional as Vice President of international operations was a wise decision. But he did not get adequate support from the company management to implement his ideas.

Going in for franchising was a good decision because they lacked huge resources to open and run their own stores everywhere. Kitchner implemented a good strategy of assigning the responsibility of opening of new stores to a Franchise Service Manager. Thus FSM became the point of contact between the local partner and the company. This helped avoid disputes of management of local stores. FSM was also responsible to send the weekly data of store sale to the company. This helped them to monitor the performance of each of their stores.

But as the international operations grew, disputes arose between the parent company and international operations on various issues such as varying the menu according to local taste, company logo etc.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

• International operations should be completely separated from domestic ones.

• Strategy of varying the menu to local taste should be implemented.

• Smooth supply chain management system should be put in place to increase efficiency and productivity.

• In case of expanding the menu, economies of scale and operational efficiency should be kept in mind.

• Some items which increase inefficiency should be removed from the menu.

d. HR Perspective

Regardless of location or culture, effective customer brand loyalty can be developed through human resource departments and the company's personnel. The most significant difference between domestic and international human resource management (HRM) seems to be that with domestic HRM there is a common standard practice that most companies are familiar with, whereas with international HRM, there are a variety of different laws and business practices that international companies have to consider. The similarities between these two types of HRM can be found on a more practical level of managing employees. Both serve to fulfil the goals, needs of employees, and to ensure that they have the necessary resources to successfully complete their duties.

The first step to successful International HRM is an understanding of cultural differences and developing appropriate means of addressing these differences

Jollibee ensures that it provides top-notch services in all its outlets. Jollibee's success can also be attributed to its organizational culture depicted through "fun and friendly environment". Through stringent recruitment and selection procedures, Jollibee ensures a service-oriented staff to man its outlets. Willing to pay above-average compensation, Jollibee ensures loyalty among its staff members and this translates into better service performance and dedication toward serving the customers. Training programs equip its staff with the necessary skills needed to better perform their tasks. By hiring professionals to devise strategies for its store operations, Jollibee is able to create a working environment that boosts high standards of professionalism and service excellence.

However, there are other problems that Jollibee faces in the international expansion of its business. Thus we have analysed the case under the following heads:

1. Polycentrism at Jollibee

2. Tony Kitchner's Kafkaesque Desires

1. POLYCENTRISM AT JOLLIBEE

The Jollibee Corporation follows the polycentric approach in partnerships. A polycentric approach recruits host country nationals to manage subsidiaries while parent country nationals occupy key positions at corporate headquarters. The Jollibee corp. has taken this a step further, and most of the key positions are held by family members. The cost of value creation could be greatly reduced using this method, and cultural imbalances can be reduced to a great extent.

But this approach at Jollibee was perhaps not carried out effectively at Jollibee. The Joint Ventures at Singapore, Taiwan and Indonesia are case in point. The parent Filipino management at Jollibee was very keen on imposing themselves on the host management. Conflicts arose on day to day management issues. Jollibee could operate properly in Brunei as there was a silent partner. When going for Polycentric partnership as a strategy it is only imperative that a certain amount of flexibility and autonomy be provided to partners. Trust was lacking in the relationships forged. The coordination required to transfer core competencies or to pursue experience curves and location economies was lacking. Instead of the formation of a transnational entity, what resulted was the formation of independent federations, trying to resist parental control.

2. TONY KITCHNER'S KAFKAESQUE DESIRES

In Tony Kitchner's case, in his three years as head of the company's International Operations, his leadership manifested both sharp professionalism and abysmal international expansion efforts. Kitchner's institution of a dress code was apt, converting the company from one that looked like a neighbourhood chain to one with a multinational image. While his "planting flags" approach reflected an interest in giving the company greater reach within its region, Kitchner's egregious lack of planning and research made it a failure. He simply opened stores in various Asian cities on the assumption that Jollibee's success in the Philippines could be transplanted with little adaptation and these stores folded one after another as he discovered his error. In addition, his approach created strained relations between his Philippine staff and the International staff. Kitchner's three years could be summed up as a period of great ideas backed with too little research and foresight

Although Tony Kitchner was hired to bring more structure to the International Division, he failed to build the rapport needed to push forward the division's initiatives. Kitchner began creating a "world-class company" by stealing employees from domestic operations—a poor first impression that lasted the duration of his career at Jollibee. By setting the stage for competition, Kitchner ensured that his actions, even if they were beneficial for the company, would meet criticism from the domestic side. Kitchner should have recognized that the hostility coming from Domestic was underscored by a fear that their division would be eclipsed by International. Rather than cultivate this fear, Kitchner should have made it explicit that the International Division's success would have reflected on the company as a whole. By simply increasing communication, Kitchner could have enlisted Domestic's support in his endeavours.

Under the company's early divisional structure, value-chain activities such as R&D and Finance were controlled by the Philippine operations. The failure to gain access to these resources hindered International's ability to modify the logo, store layout, and menu—modifications, which were potentially beneficial for Jollibee. Kitchner fostered tension within the organization and it was ultimately this contribution that led to his dismissal.

Kitchner never really understood the organizational culture at Jollibee. It would not be an exaggeration to opine that Kitchner was ‘culturally challenged'. He failed to realize that a bulk of his interventions at Jollibee was paradigm shifts. Practices that were built over 16 years were shoved into oblivion in a matter of months. His performance during his three year stint is a marked reflection of inherent superiority complex that is usually associated with Western expatriates. He is a perfect example of the ‘sea gull manager.'

Recommendations

It is evident that Jollibee is following a transnational strategy. The recommendations from a HR perspective would be

1. A geocentric approach: Switch to a more flexible geocentric approach to staffing and partnerships. Seek the best people for key jobs throughout the organization regardless of nationality. Mr. Tony Kitchner was perhaps the first person who was chosen regardless of nationality, and the disaster that ensued was perhaps because of the overwhelming cultural myopia polycentricism imbibed. A geocentric approach is the best way to utilize Human Resources. A cadre of international executives who feel at home working in multiple cultures is the need of the hour if Jollibee has to expand. While the lower rungs of staffing can be citizens of the host country, the top level management should be people who have the expertise and the skill to push the operational effectiveness of Jollibee without having to compromise on organizational culture and effectiveness.

2. Management Development: International Business is increasingly using Management Development as a strategic tool. Jollibee needs a strong corporate culture, and informal management networks to assist in coordination and control. It also needs to understand local cultures before expansion. All this can be achieved through a proper emphasis on Management Development. An effective MDP can build a unifying corporate culture by socializing new managers and partners into the norms and value systems of the firm. Personal culture should be stripped; the company culture must be donned. Tony Kitchner was exhibiting his personal culture throughout. The organizational culture was forgotten. How else could friendliness, one of the pillars of the Jollibee brand be replaced by scathing competition, in the short three year period he was in charge?

3. Facilitate inter unit cooperation: The R&D wing of Jollibee was not forthcoming in its interactions with International. The creation of ‘departmental silos' have often resulted the fall of Goliaths in business. Intra and inter unit communication cannot be ignored. Knowledge Management cannot occur in its absence. Various out bound and internal training exercises should be carried out in the Jollibee facility to iron out differences and inflict comradeship. The use of external corporate trainers in this regard would definitely be a plus.

Small differences in management style and culture between the cooperating firms may become serious problems that make it difficult to create synergies, which ultimately lead to poor financial performance. Given the difficulty of identifying the organizational compatibility between two firms, it can be convenient to use some specific procedures to predict whether the relationship might work.

Noli Tingzon – A Fresh Look at Strategy

The arrival of Noli Tingzon marks a critical juncture for Jollibee, where it will begin entering the US market. The key to Jollibee's success in Daly City will be its ability to find a local partner that can leverage its organizational advantage, while navigating the challenges of conducting business in the United States.

Three Options for Expansion

 Papua New Guinea- Raising the Standard

 New Entrant into 3 store fast food chain

 Tingzon offered to put up all capital required

 Hong Kong- Expanding the Base

 3 Store already established, possibility of a 4th one.

 High volume with Filipinos but not with residents (Chinese)

 4th store location high traffic but few Filipinos

 California-Supporting the Settlers

 Success in Guam led them to believe US had potential

 Food Appealed to Filipinos and Americans

 Decided on Daly City-Large Filipino population

 Plans to appeal to Asian Americans and then Hispanic Americans

Recommendations

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: There are five million people in Papua New Guinea with extremely limited fast food options. Jollibee can come in and set a high standard, attract many customers, and scare future investors away. However they would have to quickly add three to four stores to be competitive and cover costs. There was also question as to whether the area could handle 20 stores. Either they will get the first mover advantage or they will sustain huge loss. Since the benefits offered by the local partner are uncertain and profit potential is low, Jollibee should not seek to enter New Guinea at this time.

HONG KONG: In Hong Kong, Jollibee are located near a very densely populated area, which has a very loyal Filipino customer base. These people gave them great business on the weekends, but sales fell off during the week because the local Hong Kong people rarely frequented the Jollibee establishment. Also, there were tremendous problems with the Chinese stores. All of the managers resigned and many employees quit because the Chinese like to work for Chinese. There was obvious friction between the Chinese and Filipino's. While the fourth store in Hong Kong represents a valuable learning opportunity, it will not generate the revenues needed to build a global empire. Catering to the local Chinese palette would allow Jollibee to build its competitive advantage by learning to balance flexibility in menu offerings with consistency across the global brand. Additionally, a success in cosmopolitan Hong Kong could give Jollibee the brand exposure it needs to attract better partners. However, given the staffing issues and uncertainty involving the local Chinese customer, it would be better for Jollibee to improve its current operations, rather than to commit additional resources to a new store.

CALIFORNIA: It will be a very good idea to target the Asian community living in U.S and California is the best place to start from. The intense competitive atmosphere of US fast food market will provide Jollibee tremendous opportunity of global learning. Furthermore, they also discovered that there were many elements of their restaurants that appealed to Americans. Similarly, there was great support from Filipino-Americans. Likewise, Jollibee was going to expand throughout California before it moved east. They were determined to gain recognition. Another helpful aspect is the diversification of America. In any given city a person can find Chinese, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Japanese, American, German, Polish, Indian, and other ethnic restaurants. Americans like to try food of different cultures and there is no reason to believe that we will not try Filipino food. There is very little reason to believe that Jollibee cannot successfully enter the fast food market in the United States. But on the other hand, United States is home to some of Jollibee's most formidable competitors. As a late-mover, it will be difficult for Jollibee to obtain access to the distribution channels, suppliers, and store locations which allowed it to become a cost leader in the Philippines. Additionally, aside from its experience in Guam, Jollibee does not have any real experience operating in a Western business environment.

Conclusion: Implementation Plan

a. New product-new market

JFC could introduce new product develop targeting the foreign market. The new products that they had introduced in the Philippines could also be applicable to the international market. These stores should be particularly targeted towards the Filipinos working overseas.

b. Increase depots in the domestic and other countries

JFC could establish additional depot near Jollibee stores. Through this, they could be able to reduce logistics costs thus leading to cost efficiency.

Such a measure will ensure the freshness and high quality of the products that they will deliver to the international stores. In addition, they could avoid high shifting cost from the Philippines to other countries.

They can also enter into joint venture agreement with other country in establishing new depot abroad. That is for JFC to be able to have ready knowledge about the external factors governing the country.

c. Maintaining market dominance

To attain market dominance, Jollibee should concentrate on increasing the presence in international markets. The international market will only need a good communication plan like tailor made ads, PR articles, good promotional plans in getting the newly introduced products known, and focusing on pushing products, getting it known, and creating loyal customers. Besides, the transfer of the local taste buds would not be that quick going to international markets.

Also, the company should improve on its research and development from new markets, potential acquisitions and new products to be developed.

For each of the other business units, JFC should communicate the company culture through company conventions to ensure that the company interests are achieved.

Advertising campaigns though do not always have to be Jollibee sponsored. As a suggestion, the other business units should focus on environment publicity, compared to Jollibee's ads for humanity and youth

As the macro environment changes, the company should be responding by aligning its strategy and structure according to these changes. The group feels that company should take baby steps rather than the aggressive steps as those taken by Kitchner, owing to the financial constraints .The company should try to ride on the learning curve and experience from different markets. The company should try to resolve the internal conflicts and should have a focused vision.

References

BOOKS

1. Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990). History of the Filipino People Eighth Edition, Barangay Commonwealth, Quezon City: Garotech Publishing.

2. Ansoff, H. Igor. (1965). Corporate Strategy, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

3. Barney, Jay B. (2002). Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage Second Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

4. Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). The Philippines – A Unique Nation: History of the Republic of the Philippines Second Edition, Cubao, Quezon City: All Nations Publishing.

JOURNALS

1. Bartlett, Christopher A. (2001). "Jollibee Foods Corporation (A): International Expansion," Harvard Business School Case.

2. Ernst and Young Global Entrepreneur Of The Year Philippines 2004– Master Entrepreneur Tony Tan Caktiong

3. Khanna, Tarun, and Krishna G. Palepu. (2006). "Emerging Giants: Building World-Class Companies in Developing Countries," Harvard Business Review: 2-11.

WEBSITES

1. http://www.ey.com/global/Content.nsf/Philippines/Entrepreneur_of_the_Year-Tony_Tan_Caktiong,on February 25, 2008.

2. Jollibee's official website (http://www.jollibee.com.ph/, on February 21, 2008)

NEWSPAPERS

1. Lopez, Tony. (2007). "Virtual Reality: McDo vs. Jollibee," Manila Times, August 14, 2007.

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